1. Hoa Ethnic Group
The Hoa are scattered across both rural and urban areas. In urban areas, the Hoa are prominent in the commercial and service sectors. Rural village houses consist of 3 rooms and two wings, with 4 to 5 family members in each house and organized patriarchally.
Traditional Chinese clothing is worn by older people or for ceremonies.
Traditional Costumes of the Chinese people only see in some older people or in wedding ceremonies, funerals. Marriages are arranged, as parents look for suitable matches for their children, and funerals follow a strict procedure from death to the end of the mourning period.
The Hoa worship their ancestors, as well as several gods such as the god of the kitchen, the god of the earth, the god of good fortune etc. They also have several saints and have been influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and such create both pagodas and temples.
Cultural activities include “nightingale singing”, opera and dances like lion and dragon dance, as well as boxing and many traditional games.
2. Ngai Ethnic Group
The Ngai live all over Vietnam, but with particular concentrations in the provinces of Bac Kan, Bac Giang, Cao Bang, Lang Son, Quang Ninh, and Thai Nguyen among others.
The Ngai who live inland make their living by planting mainly rice but also corn, potatoes and cassava as well as animal husbandry, while the coastal Ngai sustain themselves via fishing. Common industrial occupations include weaving, carpentry, and masonry.
Inland their architecture varies, while on the coast they often live right on their boats.
Families are structured patriarchally, and the patriarch of the largest family plays an important role in inter-community relations.
Weddings consist of two steps, and people generally get married early, with the wife staying with her husband’s family after the wedding.
After death, Ngai are buried with their most treasured and used possessions, and the funerals are long and complex.
In terms of worship, the Ngai worship their ancestors who are symbolized by various objects, as well as Buddhist beliefs and a belief in various spirits. They have a rich culture of art, including folk music, dances and oral storytelling.
3. San Diu Ethnic Group
The San Diu are concentrated in Northern Vietnam, on the left bank of the Red River. Their villages are similar to the ones of the Kinh, surrounded by bamboo and featuring fencing around the houses.
Their economy is dominated by wet rice farming, as well as forestry, animal husbandry and fishing. Common crafts include masonry, tiling, forging and weaving.
Women traditionally wear a black robe with a long dress, consisting of one or two layers, with the inner layer always white and the outer always indigo and a little longer. They also wear red bibs, pink or blue belts and their dresses have white hems.
Men dress similarly to the Kinh, having their hair in a bun and a scarf, or wearing a turban, together with a long dark coat and white pants.
Men and women are free to get to know each other before marriage; however marriages are arranged by their parents.
Like many other Vietnamese ethnic groups, the San Diu have a rich heritage of singing, with love songs called Soong Co a particular speciality. These are song at night, and can sometimes last for several nights in a row.